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What are the democratic potentials and the dominance pitfalls of differentiation in today’s EU?


What is EU3D?

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EU3D is a research project that examines the increasingly differentiated European political order.


EU3D is coordinated by ARENA Centre for European Studies at the University of Oslo.


EU3D brings together around 50 researchers from 10 European partner institutions.

Differentiation: Clustering Excellence

DiCE brings together the three projects funded by the EU's H2020 call Past, present and future of differentiation in European governance. DiCE is composed of the three coordinators of InDivEU, EU IDEA and EU3D and constitutes an unparalleled network of scholars on differentiation.

Advisory Board

The 27 members of EU3D's Advisory Board are renowned academics and high-profile policy experts with experience from European governance, EU reforms and European and national politics.